1. Which quantity is a vector?

(1) power
(2) kinetic energy
(3) speed
(4) weight

2. A 65.0-kilogram astronaut weighs 638 newtons at the surface of Earth. What is the mass of the astronaut at the surface of the Moon, where the acceleration due to gravity is 1.62 meters per second squared?

(1) 10.7 kg
(2) 65.0 kg
(3) 105 N
(4) 638 N

3. When the sum of all forces acting on a block on an inclined plane is zero, the block

(1) must be at rest
(2) must be accelerating
(3) may be slowing down
(4) may be moving at constant speed

4. The greatest increase in the inertia of an object would be produced by increasing the

(1) mass of the object from 1.0 kg to 2.0 kg
(2) net force applied to the object from 1.0 N to 2.0 N
(3) time that a net force is applied to the object from 1.0 s to 2.0 s
(4) speed of the object from 1.0 m/s to 2.0 m/s

5. A 100.-kilogram cart accelerates at 0.50 meter per second squared west as a horse exerts a force of 60. newtons west on the cart. What is the magnitude of the force that the cart exerts on the horse?

(1) 10. N
(2) 50. N
(3) 60. N
(4) 110 N

6. Sound waves are described as

(1) mechanical and transverse
(2) mechanical and longitudinal
(3) electromagnetic and transverse
(4) electromagnetic and longitudinal

7. An electrical force of 8.0 \times 10^{-5} newton exists between two point charges, q_{1} and q_{2}. If the distance between the charges is doubled, the new electrical force between the charges will be

(1) 1.6 \times 10^{-4} N
(2) 2.0 \times 10^{-5} N
(3) 3.2 \times 10^{-4} N
(4) 4.0 \times 10^{-5} N

8. A blue lab cart is traveling west on a track when it collides with and sticks to a red lab cart traveling east. The magnitude of the momentum of the blue cart before the collision is 2.0 kilogram.meters per second, and the magnitude of the momentum of the red cart before the collision is 3.0 kilogram.meters per second. The magnitude of the total momentum of the two carts after the collision is

(1) 1.0 kg\bulletm/s
(2) 2.0 kg\bulletm/s
(3) 3.0 kg\bulletm/s
(4) 5.0 kg\bulletm/s

9. The diagram below represents the path of a thrown ball through the air.

Which arrow best represents the direction in which friction acts on the ball at point P?


10. A magnitude field would be produced by a beam of

(1) x rays
(2) gamma rays
(3) protons
(4) neutrons

11. The diagram below represents the electric field in the region of two small charged spheres, A and B.

What is the sign of the net charge on A and B?

(1) A is positive and B is positive.
(2) A is positive and B is negative.
(3) A is negative and B is negative.
(4) A is negative and B is positive.

12. A horizontal force of 20 newtons eastward causes a 10-kilogram box to have a displacement of 5 meters eastward. The total work done on the box by the 20-newton force is

(1) 40 J
(2) 100 J
(3) 200 J
(4) 1000 J

13. A block initially at rest on a horizontal, frictionless surface is accelerated by a constant horizontal force of 5.0 newtons. If 15 joules of work is done on the block by this force while accelerating it, the kinetic energy of the block increases by

(1) 3.0 J
(2) 15 J
(3) 20 J
(4) 75 J

14. Two objects, A and B, are held one meter above the horizontal ground. The mass of B is twice as great as the mass of A. If PE is the gravitational potential energy of A relative to the ground, then the gravitational potential energy of B relative to the ground is

(1) PE
(2) 2PE
(3) \dfrac{PE}{2}
(4) 4PE

15. What is the kinetic energy of a 55-kilogram skier traveling at 9.0 meters per second?

(1) 2.5 \times 10^{2} J
(2) 5.0 \times 10^{2} J
(3) 2.2 \times 10^{3} J
(4) 4.9 \times 10^{3} J

16. A 5.09 \times 10^{14}-hertz electromagnetic wave is traveling through a transparent medium. The main factor that determines the speed of this wave is the

(1) nature of the medium
(2) amplitude of the wave
(3) phase of the wave
(4) distance traveled through the medium

17. A motor does a total of 480 joules of work in 5.0 seconds to lift a 12-kilogram block to the top of a ramp. The average power developed by the motor is

(1) 8.0 W
(2) 40. W
(3) 96 W
(4) 2400 W

18. A 5.8 \times 10^{4}-watt elevator motor can lift a total weight of 2.1 \times 10^{4} newtons with a maximum constant speed of

(1) 0.28 m/s
(2) 0.36 m/s
(3) 2.8 m/s
(4) 3.6 m/s

19. A stationary police officer directs radio waves emitted by a radar gun at a vehicle moving toward the officer. Compared to the emitted radio waves, the radio waves reflected from the vehicle and received by the radar gun have a

(1) longer wavelength
(2) higher speed
(3) longer period
(4) higher frequency

20. A light wave strikes the Moon and reflects toward Earth. As the light wave travels from the Moon toward Earth, the wave carries

(1) energy, only
(2) matter, only
(3) both energy and matter
(4) neither energy nor matter

21. The time required to produce one cycle of a wave is known as the wave’s

(1) amplitude
(2) frequency
(3) period
(4) wavelength

22. A magnetic compass is placed near an insulated copper wire. When the wire is connected to a battery and a current is created, the compass needle moves and changes its position. Which is the best explanation for the production of a force that causes the needle to move?

(1) The copper wire magnetizes the compass needle and exerts the force on the compass needle.
(2) The compass needle magnetizes the copper wire and exerts the force on the compass needle.
(3) The insulation on the wire becomes charged, which exerts the force on the compass needle.
(4) The current in the wire produces a magnetic field that exerts the force on the compass needle.

23. A beam of monochromatic light (f = 5.09 \times 10^{14}Hz) has a wavelength of 589 nanometers in air. What is the wavelength of this light in Lucite?

(1) 150 nm
(2) 393 nm
(3) 589 nm
(4) 884 nm

24. If the amplitude of a sound wave is increased, there is an increase in the sound’s

(1) loudness
(2) pitch
(3) velocity
(4) wavelength

25. In the diagram below, point P is located in the electric field between two oppositely charged parallel plates.

Compared to the magnitude and direction of the electrostatic force on an electron placed at point P, the electrostatic force on a proton placed at point P has

(1) the same magnitude and the same direction
(2) the same magnitude, but the opposite direction
(3) a greater magnitude, but the same direction
(4) a greater magnitude and the opposite direction

26. The effect produced when two or more sound waves pass through the same point simultaneously is called

(1) interference
(2) diffraction
(3) refraction
(4) resonance

27. A gamma-ray photon and a microwave photon are traveling in a vacuum. Compared to the wavelength and energy of the gamma ray photon, the microwave photon has a

(1) shorter wavelength and less energy
(2) shorter wavelength and more energy
(3) longer wavelength and less energy
(4) longer wavelength and more energy

28. According to the Standard Model of Particle Physics, a neutrino is a type of

(1) lepton
(2) photon
(3) meson
(4) baryon

29. Which combination of quarks produces a neutral baryon?

(1) cts
(2) dsb
(3) uds
(4) uct

30. When 2.0 \times 10^{-16} kilogram of matter is converted into energy, how much energy is released?

(1) 1.8 \times 10^{-1} J
(2) 1.8 \times 10^{1} J
(3) 6.0 \times 10^{-32} J
(4) 6.0 \times 10^{-8} J

31. A ball is hit straight up with an initial speed of 28 meters per second. What is the speed of the ball 2.2 seconds after it is hit? [Neglect friction.]

(1) 4.3 m/s
(2) 6.4 m/s
(3) 22 m/s
(4) 28 m/s

32. A particle with a charge of 3.00 elementary charges moves through a potential difference of 4.50 volts. What is the change in electrical potential energy of the particle?

(1) 1.07 \times 10^{-19} eV
(2) 2.16 \times 10^{-18} eV
(3) 1.50 eV
(4) 13.5 eV

33. Which circuit has the largest equivalent resistance?


34. A transverse wave is moving toward the right in a uniform medium. Point X represents a particle of the uniform medium. Which diagram represents the direction of the motion of particle X at the instant shown?


35. Which diagram represents magnetic field lines between two north magnetic poles?


36. Which measurement is closest to 1 \times 10^{-2} meter?

(1) diameter of an atom
(2) width of a student’s finger
(3) length of a football field
(4) height of a schoolteacher

37. Which graph represents the relationship between the speed of a freely falling object and the time of fall of the object near Earth’s surface?


38. A hairdryer with a resistance of 9.6 ohms operates at 120 volts for 2.5 minutes. The total electrical energy used by the dryer during this time interval is

(1) 2.9 \times 10^{3} J
(2) 3.8 \times 10^{3} J
(3) 1.7 \times 10^{5} J
(4) 2.3 \times 10^{5} J

39. A box weighing 46 newtons rests on an incline that makes an angle of 25^{\circ} with the horizontal. What is the magnitude of the component of the box’s weight perpendicular to the incline?

(1) 19 N
(2) 21 N
(3) 42 N
(4) 46 N

40. Which graph represents the motion of an object traveling with a positive velocity and a negative acceleration?


41. Car A, moving in a straight line at a constant speed of 20. meters per second, is initially 200 meters behind car B, moving in the same straight line at a constant speed of 15 meters per second. How far must car A travel from this initial position before it catches up with car B?

(1) 200 m
(2) 400 m
(3) 800 m
(4) 1000 m

42. A 2700-ohm resistor in an electric circuit draws a current of 2.4 milliamperes. The total charge that passes through the resistor in 15 seconds is

(1) 1.6 \times 10^{-4} C
(2) 3.6 \times 10^{-2} C
(3) 1.6 \times 10^{-1} C
(4) 3.6 \times 10^{1} C

43. A 1000.-kilogram car traveling 20.0 meters per second east experiences an impulse of 2000. newton.seconds west. What is the final velocity of the car after the impulse has been applied?

(1) 18.0 m/s east
(2) 19.5 m/s east
(3) 20.5 m/s west
(4) 22.0 m/s west

44. Which graph represents the relationship between the potential difference applied to a copper wire and the resulting current in the wire at constant temperature?


45. A tungsten wire has resistance R at 20^{\circ} C. A second tungsten wire at 20^{\circ} C has twice the length and half the cross-sectional area of the first wire. In terms of R, the resistance of the second wire is

(1) \dfrac{R}{2}
(2) R
(3) 2R
(4) 4R

46. After an incandescent lamp is turned on, the temperature of its filament rapidly increases from room temperature to its operating temperature. As the temperature of the filament increases, what happens to the resistance of the filament and the current through the filament?

(1) The resistance increases and the current decreases.
(2) The resistance increases and the current increases.
(3) The resistance decreases and the current decreases.
(4) The resistance decreases and the current increases.

47. Parallel wavefronts are incident on an opening in a barrier. Which diagram shows the configuration of wavefronts and barrier opening that will result in the greatest diffraction of the waves passing through the opening? [Assume all diagrams are drawn to the same scale.]


48. A singer demonstrated that she could shatter a crystal glass by singing a note with a wavelength of 0.320 meter in air at STP. What was the natural frequency of the glass?

(1) 9.67 \times 10^{-4} Hz
(2) 1.05 \times 10^{2} Hz
(3) 1.03 \times 10^{3} Hz
(4) 9.38 \times 10^{8} Hz

49. The diagram below represents a standing wave in a string.

Maximum constructive interference occurs at the

(1) antinodes A, C, and E
(2) nodes A, C, and E
(3) antinodes B and D
(4) nodes B and D

50. Which circuit diagram represents voltmeter V connected correctly to measure the potential difference across resistor R_{2}?