1. Which quantity is scalar?

(1) mass
(2) force
(3) momentum
(4) acceleration

2. What is the final speed of an object that starts from rest and accelerates uniformly at $4.0$ meters per second2 over a distance of [latetx]8.0[/latex] meters?

(1) $8.0$ m/s
(2) $16$ m/s
(3) $32$ m/s
(4) $64$ m/s

3. The components of a $15$-meters-per-second velocity at an angle of $60^{\circ}$ above the horizontal are

(1) $7.5$ m/s vertical and $13$ m/s horizontal
(2) $13$ m/s vertical and $7.5$ m/s horizontal
(3) $6.0$ m/s vertical and $9.0$ m/s horizontal
(4) $9.0$ m/s vertical and $6.0$ m/s horizontal

4. What is the time required for an object starting from rest to fall freely $500$ meters near Earth’s surface?

(1) $51.0$ s
(2) $25.5$ s
(3) $10.1$ s
(4) $7.14$ s

5. A baseball exerts a force of magnitude $F$ on a ball. If the mass of the bat is three times the mass of the ball, the magnitude of the force of the ball on the bat is

(1) $F$
(2) $2F$
(3) $3F$
(4) $\dfrac{F}{3}$

6. A $2.0$-kilogram mass is located $3.0$ meters above the surface of Earth. What is the magnitude of Earth’s gravitational field strength at this location?

(1) $4.9$ N/kg
(2) $2.0$ N/kg
(3) $9.8$ N/kg
(4) $20.$ N/kg

7. A truck, initially traveling at a speed of $22$ meters per second, increases speed at a constant rate of $2.4$ meters per second2 for $3.2$ seconds. What is the total distance traveled by the truck during this $3.2$-second time interval?

(1) $12$ m
(2) $58$ m
(3) $70$ m
(4) $83$ m

8. A $750$-newton person stands in an elevator that is accelerating downward. The upward force of the elevator floor on the person must be

(1) equal to $0$ N
(2) less than $750$ N
(3) equal to $750$ N
(4) greater than $750$ N

9. A $3.0$-kilogram object is acted upon by an impulse having a magnitude of $15$ newton.seconds. What is the magnitude of the object’s change in momentum due to this impulse?

(1) $5.0$ kg$\bullet$m/s
(2) $15$ kg$\bullet$m/s
(3) $3.0$ kg$\bullet$m/s
(4) $45$ kg$\bullet$m/s

10. An airbag is used to safely decrease the momentum of a driver in a car accident. The airbag reduces the magnitude of the force acting on the driver by

(1) increasing the length of time the force acts on the driver
(2) decreasing the distance over which the force acts on the driver
(3) increasing the rate of acceleration of the driver
(4) decreasing the mass of the driver

11. An electron moving at constant speed produces

(1) a magnetic field, only
(2) an electric field, only
(3) both a magnetic and an electric field
(4) neither a magnetic nor an electric field

12. A beam of electrons passes through an electric field where the magnitude of the electric field strength is $3.00 \times 10^{3}$ newtons per coulomb. What is the magnitude of the electrostatic force exerted by the electric field on each electron in the beam?

(1) $5.33 \times 10^{-23}$ N
(2) $4.80 \times 10^{-16}$ N
(3) $3.00 \times 10^{3}$ N
(4) $1.88 \times 10^{22}$ N

13. How much work is required to move $3.0$ coulombs of electric charge a distance of $0.010$ meter through a potential difference of $9.0$ volts?

(1) $2.7 \times 10^{3}$ J
(2) $27$ J
(3) $3.0$ J
(4) $3.0 \times 10^{-2}$ J

14. What is the resistance of a $20.0$-meter-long tungsten rod with a cross-sectional area of $1.00 x 10^{-4}$ meter^{2} at $20^\circ$ C?

(1) $2.80 \times 10^{-5} \Omega$
(2) $1.12 \times 10^{-2} \Omega$
(3) $89.3 \Omega$
(4) $112 \Omega$

15. Two pieces of flint rock produce a visible spark when they are stuck together. During this process, mechanical energy is converted into

(1) nuclear energy and electromagnetic energy
(2) internal energy and nuclear energy
(3) electromagnetic energy and internal energy
(4) elastic potential energy and nuclear energy

16. A $15$-kilogram cart is at rest on a horizontal surface. A $5$-kilogram box is placed in the cart. Compared to the mass and inertia of the cart, the cart-box system has

(1) more mass and more inertia
(2) more mass and the same inertia
(3) the same mass and more inertia
(4) less mass and more inertia

17. Transverse waves are to radio waves as longitudinal waves are to

(1) light waves
(2) microwaves
(3) ultraviolet waves
(4) sound waves

18. As a monochromatic light ray passes from air into water, two characteristics of the ray that will not change are

(1) wavelength and period
(2) frequency and period
(3) wavelength and speed
(4) frequency and speed

19. When a mass is placed on a spring with a spring constant of $60.0$ newtons per meter, the spring is compressed $0.500$ meter. How much energy is stored in the spring?

(1) $60.0$ J
(2) $30.0$ J
(3) $15.0$ J
(4) $7.50$ J

20. A boy pushes his sister on a swing. What is the frequency of oscillation of his sister on the swing if the boy counts $90.$ complete swings in $300.$ seconds?

(1) $0.30$ Hz
(2) $2.0$ Hz
(3) $1.5$ Hz
(4) $18$ Hz

21. What is the period of a sound wave having a frequency of $340$ hertz?

(1) $3.40 \times 10^{2}$ s
(2) $1.02 \times 10^{0}$ s
(3) $9.73 \times 10^{-1}$ s
(4) $2.94 \times 10^{-3}$ s

22. An MP3 player draws current of $0.120$ ampere from a $3.00$-volt battery. What is the total charge that passes through the player in $900$ seconds?

(1) $324$ C
(2) $108$ C
(3) $5.40$ C
(4) $1.80$ C

23. A beam of light has a wavelength of $4.5 \times 10^{-7}$ meter in a vacuum. The frequency of this light is

(1) $1.5 \times 10^{-15}$ Hz
(2) $4.5 \times 10^{-7}$ Hz
(3) $1.4 \times 10^{2}$ Hz
(4) $6.7 \times 10^{14}$ Hz

24. When x-ray radiation and infrared radiation are traveling in a vacuum, they have the same

(1) speed
(2) frequency
(3) wavelength
(4) energy per photon

25. The diagram below represents two identical pulses approaching each other in a uniform medium.

As the pulses meet and are superposed, the maximum displacement of the medium is

(1) $-6$ cm
(2) $0$ cm
(3) $3$ cm
(4) $6$ cm

26. As a car approaches a pedestrian crossing the road, the driver blows the horn. Compared to the sound wave emitted by the horn, the sound wave detected by the pedestrian has a

(1) higher frequency and a lower pitch
(2) higher frequency and a higher pitch
(3) lower frequency and a higher pitch
(4) lower frequency and a lower pitch

27. When air is blown across the top of an open water bottle, air molecules in the bottle vibrate at a particular frequency and sound is produced. This phenomenon is called

(1) diffraction
(2) refraction
(3) resonance
(4) the Doppler effect

28. An antibaryon composed of two antiup quarks and one antidown quark would have a charge of

(1) $+1e$
(2) $-1e$
(3) $0e$
(4) $-3e$

29. Which force is responsible for producing a stable nucleus by opposing the electrostatic force of repulsion between protons?

(1) strong
(2) weak
(3) frictional
(4) gravitational

30. What is the total energy released when $9.11 x 10^{-31}$ kilogram of mass is converted into energy?

(1) $2.73 \times 10^{-22}$ J
(2) $8.20 \times 10^{-14}$ J
(3) $9.11 \times 10^{-31}$ J
(4) $1.01 \times 10^{-17}$ J

31. A shopping cart slows as it moves along a level floor. Which statement describes the energies of the cart?

(1) The kinetic energy increases and the gravitational potential energy remains the same.
(2) The kinetic energy increases and the gravitational potential energy decreases.
(3) The kinetic energy decreases and the gravitational potential energy remains the same.
(4) The kinetic energy decreases and the gravitational potential energy increases.

32. Two identically-sized metal spheres, $A$ and $B$, are on insulating stands, as shown in the diagram below. Sphere $A$ possesses an excess of $6.3 \times 10^{10}$ electrons and sphere $B$ is neutral.

Which diagram best represents the charge distribution on sphere $B$?

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

33. Two points, $A$ and $B$, are located within the electric field produced by a $-3.0$ nanocoulomb charge. Point $A$ is $0.10$ meter to the left of the charge and point $B$ is $0.20$ meter to the right of the charge, as shown in the diagram below.

Compared to the magnitude of the electric field strength at point $A$, the magnitude of the electric field strength at point $B$ is

(1) half as great
(2) twice as great
(3) one-fourth as great
(4) four times as great

34. The diagram below represents two waves, $A$ and $B$, traveling through the same uniform medium.

Which characteristic is the same for both waves?

(1) amplitude
(2) frequency
(3) period
(4) wavelength

35. The diagram below shows a periodic wave.

Which two points on the wave are $180{^\circ}$ out of phase?

(1) A and C
(2) B and E
(3) F and G
(4) D and H

36. The height of a $30$-story building is approximately

(1) $10^{0}$ m
(2) $10^{1}$ m
(3) $10^{2}$ m
(4) $10^{3}$ m

37. Two identically-sized metal spheres on insulating stands are positioned as shown below. The charge on sphere $A$ is $-4.0 \times 10^{-6}$ coulomb and the charge on sphere $B$ is $-8.0 \times 10^{-6}$ coulomb.

The two spheres are touched together and then separated. The total number of excess electrons on sphere $A$ after the separation is

(1) $2.5 \times 10^{13}$
(2) $3.8 \times 10^{13}$
(3) $5.0 \times 10^{13}$
(4) $7.5 \times 10^{13}$

38. A $1.0 \times 10^{3}$-kilogram car travels at a constant speed of $20.$ meters per second around a horizontal circular track. The diameter of the track is $1.0 \times 10^{2}$ meters. The magnitude of the car’s centripetal acceleration is

(1) $0.20$ $m/s^{2}$
(2) $2.0$ $m/s^{2}$
(3) $8.0$ $m/s^{2}$
(4) $4.0$ $m/s^{2}$

39. Which combination of units can be used to express electrical energy?

(1) $\dfrac{volt}{coulomb}$
(2) $\dfrac{coulomb}{volt}$
(3) $volt \bullet coulomb$
(4) $volt\bullet coulomb\bullet second$

40. The total amount of electrical energy used by a $315$-watt television during $30.0$ minutes of operation is

(1) $5.67 \times 10^{5}$ J
(2) $9.45 \times 10^{3}$ J
(3) $1.05 \times 10^{1}$ J
(4) $1.75 \times 10^{-1}$ J

41. Which graph best represents the relationship between the absolute index of refraction and the speed of light ($f = 5.09 \times 10^{14}$ Hz) in various media?

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

42. A $25$-gram paper cup falls from rest off the edge of a tabletop $0.90$ meter above the floor. If the cup has a $0.20$ joule of kinetic energy when it hits the floor, what is the total amount of energy converted into internal (thermal) energy during the cup’s fall?

(1) $0.02$ J
(2) $0.22$ J
(3) $2.2$ J
(4) $220$ J

43. Which electron transition between the energy levels of hydrogen causes the emission of a photon of visible light?

(1) $n = 6$ to $n = 5$
(2) $n = 5$ to $n = 6$
(3) $n = 5$ to $n = 2$
(4) $n = 2$ to $n = 5$

44. Which graph best represents an object in equilibrium moving in a straight line?

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

45. A body, $B$, is moving at constant speed in a horizontal circular path around point $P$. Which diagram shows the direction of the velocity $(v)$and the direction of the centripetal force $(F_{c})$ acting on the body?

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

46. Which graph best represents the relationship between photon energy and photon wavelength?

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

47. Which combination of initial horizontal velocity, $(v_{H})$ and initial vertical velocity, $v_{V}$ results in the greatest horizontal range for a projectile over level ground? [Neglect friction.]

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

48. Which graph best represents the greatest amount of work?

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

49. When a ray of light traveling in water reaches a boundary with air, part of the light ray is reflected and part is refracted. Which ray diagram best represents the paths of the reflected and refracted light rays?

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

50. The graph below represents the work done against gravity by a student as she walks up a flight of stairs at constant speed.

Compared to the power generated by the student after $2.0$ seconds, the power generated by the student after $4.0$ seconds is

(1) the same
(2) twice as great
(3) half as great
(4) four times as great